Full form of CNG: History, Features, Properties, Advantages

CNG is an acronym for Compressed Natural Gas. It is mainly composed of methane gas, which can be mixed with air and supplied to the combustion chamber of the engine to produce engine output. Therefore, it can be used as a substitute for diesel, gasoline and propane / LPG. Compared to diesel, gasoline, and LPG, there is less unnecessary gas, so it is effective in controlling air pollution. Therefore, we respect the environment more than other flammable products. It is lighter than air and spreads as soon as it is released, making it safer than other alternatives for damping.

History of CNC

  • Models in the late 1800s implemented the use of natural gas as fuel for automobiles. 
  • The first natural gas engine was manufactured in the United States, and shortly after World War II, Italy and many other European countries introduced CNG as their primary motor fuel. 
  • CNG is used in oil tanks.
  •  It is also available at wastewater treatment plants and landfills. 
  • By compressing natural gas, it is less than 1% of the standard atmospheric pressure.
  •  It is kept under a pressure of 20-25MPa and distributed into fairly resistant cylindrical and spherical tanks.

 Features of CNG

  • CNG is an odorless, colorless, tasteless compound with non-corrosive and non-toxic properties.
  •  Its main use in automobiles is as a substitute for gasoline. 
  • Methane is the most important component of CNG. Normally, almost no greenhouse gases are generated.
  •  It is very healthy because it easily spreads in the air. 
  • CNG is mainly derived from natural gas wells, coal wells, coalbed methane wells, and oil wells. Benefits of CNG

Properties of CNG

  • Colorless
  • Tasteless
  • Odorless
  • Non-toxic
  • Non-corrosive
  • 40% lighter than air
  • High ignition temperature

Advantages of CNG

  • It’s cheaper than other examples of gasoline and diesel used to power buses and other cars.
  •  In particular, the maintenance cost of CNG vehicles is lower than that of diesel and gasoline vehicles.
  •  It is environmentally friendly as it is less toxic than other alternative gases such as gasoline and diesel and emits unwanted gases.
  •  Crankcase oil is not actually diluted or contaminated, which extends the life of the lubricant. 
  • High temperature with self-ignition of 540oC or more is required.

What is CNG Fuel?

In the diesel industry, the acronym CNG is often used. You may have wondered if you’ve seen a CNG sticker with a blue diamond on a commercial vehicle or public transport bus. ‘What is CNG gas?CNG is an abbreviation for compressed natural gas. This is the gaseous product of petroleum and the first product to separate during the distillation process. CNG is odorless, tasteless, non-toxic and consists of 93.05% methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, propane and trace amounts of ethane.

This is an alternative fuel to the environment, as the combustion process has lower greenhouse gas emissions than other fuels. 
CNG fuel does not provide the same amount of electricity that diesel does, but it does have its advantages. CNG has a high octane number, offers a high pressure ratio, and is suitable for modern engines. Combustion of CNG reduces the production of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. In general, this type of gas is a clean combustion fuel, which helps reduce pollution. 

Understanding LPG and LNG Fuel

In addition to CNG fuel, LPG and LNG are two common alternatives to gas and diesel. Each of these types of fuel has similarities and differences.LPG fuel, or liquefied petroleum gas, is a liquefied gas and is a by-product of the extraction of crude oil. LPG is a colorless, odorless, highly flammable explosive gas that weighs twice as much as air. It consists of propane mixed with butane, trace amounts of propylene and butylene. LPG chart
One of the advantages of LPG is its low emission of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. It also has a high octane number, which extends the life of the engine.

The weight / kilometer ratio of LPG fuel is the same as the weight / kilometer ratio of gasoline vehicles. LNG fuel, or liquefied natural gas, is natural gas that is transformed into a liquid form by liquefaction. During this process, the natural gas is cooled at a low temperature until it becomes liquid, reducing the volume of the gas by about 1/600. LNG chart
LPG is composed of 95% methane, and other components include nitrogen, ethane, carbon dioxide and propane. It is non-toxic, non-corrosive and less polluting. It covers 1/600 of the amount of natural gas and is much more beneficial for storage and transportation.

CNG vs. LNG Fuel

Liquefied and compressed natural gas are the same, but in different ways of supply and storage.LNG freezes into a liquid, but CNG is under pressure until it becomes very compact. LNG occupies less storage space in the vehicle than CNG and also provides energy density comparable to diesel. 

This has become a common choice among many long haul truck companies. With proper procedures, you can convert LNG to CNG. CNG, on the other hand, is easier to replenish than LNG, which requires special handling and equipment. CNG is also very light, so it disappears if it leaks. There is no fuel loss even if you do not use it because the waiting time is unlimited. This makes CNG a safer option than LNG. CNG is less expensive to manufacture than LNG. 

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